Help us sharing our research, consultation and experiences

Donate Now

The walls within: working with defenses against otherness

Online Conference 5-11 July 2021

Lessons on Leadership by Terror: Finding a Shaka Zulu in the Attic

Professor Manfred Kets de Vries takes us inside the despotic mind to understand what their actions are all about; to comprehend the source of their actions; to recognize the danger signs; and to help create checks and balances. He studies the kind of psychological processes that contribute to political terror and the nature of group behavior associated with this phenomenon. He analyzes the special psychological interplay that occurs between despotic leaders and their followers, and scrutinizes the mind-set of such leaders. Making sense of the inner theatre of such leaders will not only help to better understand the nature of despotism and totalitarian states, but also create greater awareness of what effective and ineffective leadership is all about. For the purpose of representation, one of the most controversial African leaders of all times has been selected: Shaka Zulu. In 12 short years this warrior-king, sometimes called the Black Napoleon or African Attila, conquered a territory that was larger than Western Europe. His unification of the many tribes of the South African region and his efforts are directly credited with saving that region from European domination during his lifetime. As the observations made about Shaka Zulu are quite diverse in content, episodes in his life are selected to provide insight into his personality, with attention given to his background, developmental history and his leadership style. In analyzing Shaka Zulus personality and behavior, a clinical perspective will help to untangle the relationship between child and man, between personal peculiarities and public acts, concepts of developmental psychology, family systems theory, cognitive theory, dynamic psychiatry, psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis (particularly object relations and self-psychology) to better understand his behavior and actions. Psychological dimensions relevant to his leadership style are highlighted and analyzed in the context of the socio-political environment of the Zulu culture at that period in time. Shakas life history allows us to better understand the psychology of terror. He is a proxy for the behavior of any despot, from antiquity or modern times. Although we are used to lionizing great warriors, and excusing their excesses, the behavior of this warrior-king demonstrated a considerable amount of psychopathology. As in the case of many tyrants, the case of Shaka illustrates the megalomania, paranoia, sadism, tactics of terror, and ultimately, the flawed reality testing that characterizes the lives of many such people. His life story illustrates the collusive group dynamics between leaders and led, and the levers of power created by such individuals needed to maintain their despotic, totalitarian regimes. Kets de Vries reflects on the psychology of violence, demystifies the nobility of war, and discusses the measures that can be taken to prevent despots and their governments from terrorizing a population.